系列报告四：Safety of Li-Batteries（9:00-10:20）
The total energy of a Li-ion cell amounted to ca. 3,250 kJ/kg. About ¼ of this energy is related to electrochemical energy (chemical energy convertible into electrical energy via discharge) and ¾ to thermal energy (chemical energy convertible only into thermal energy at abuse conditions).
The main safety related events are overcharge, external heating, external and internal short circuits, and mechanical deformations of the cell/battery case.
These unpredictable events may leads to a temperature increase and at T>120°C by internal chemical processes (SEI layer breakup, anode-electrolyte reaction) with gas development (internal pressure increase) to cell container rupture at predetermined breaking points. Gas and electrolyte will escape through the rupture holes into the environment and, eventually, inflame by an external ignition source.
A further temperature increase till about 200°C triggers high rate chemical reactions (cathode decomposition with O2 development, O2 reaction with the electrolyte) leading to a very rapid temperature rise (thermal runaway) followed by flames caused by reaching the self-ignition temperature of the electrolyte (~ 450°C) and possibly explosions.
The specific occurrence of most of the above described safety related events, will be discussed in this presentation.
系列报告五：From lithium batteries to sodium batteries（10:30-11:30）
The status and the future of Li-Ion systems will be reviewed, especially the development of anodes and cathodes. Then advantages and drawbacks of sodium systems will be discussed. In summary the sodium systems are different from Li-ion systems but not better. Under development are besides sodium-ion also sodium-air systems. Surprisingly the polarization of the Na-O2 system is much lower as the polarization of the Li-O2 system. Another sodium cell variant is the Na-sulphur cell.
系列报告六：Fuel cell development in Germany and in the European Union（14:00-15:00）
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Germanyand European Union as part of a sustainable mobility will be discussed.
It will be shown results of the 1st National Innovation Program (NIP I) which operated from 2006-2015 with a budget of 2.4 Bill EUR (17.6 Bill. RMB).
on a 50:50 % PPP basic. This NIP I was concentrated on green hydrogen production, hydrogen station infrastructure and fuel cell vehicle development. Other focuses were on stationary FC applications and special markets.
In the last year the German government decided to continue the excellent developments which started already in NIP I with a new program the NIP II from 2016-2025. The planed budget for NIP II will be the same as for NIP I, i.e. 2.4 Bill EUR. The general focus of NIP II will be besides R&D on the market activation.